This is Hezekiah’s Tunnel and The Pool of Siloam

In what is considered to be one of the engineering marvels of the world, beneath Jerusalem lays the connecting tunnel from the Spring of Gihon to the Pool of Siloam.  The events that pushed a king in Judah to do the unimaginable in order to secure his people are recorded by both the king and his encroaching enemy from Assyria.  To accomplish the task will require none other than the literal guiding hand of God. 

King Hezekiah is one of the few kings in the history of Israel (Judah, in this case of the divided kingdom) that is recorded as “doing right in the sight of the Lord.”  The irony of this is that he was born of King Ahaz, who was an abundantly wicked man (2 Kings 16, 17).  Not only did he (Ahaz) desecrate the temple, have his own altar built (and placed before the actual altar of the Lord in the temple), encouraged idol worship and depended on the nations to defend him, but he also offered human sacrifice of his own children to idols.  It is incredible how the heart of a son can be so different than the heart of his father. 

Because of Ahaz’ wickedness (and north Israel’s king Hoshea), enemies plundered the land of Israel.  Despite God’s warnings through His prophets (i.e. Hosea, Isaiah, Micah and Obed), Scripture states that they “stiffened their neck like their fathers, who did not believe in the Lord their God.”  By this time, Ahaz has already cut a deal with Assyrian king, Tiglath-pileser and bribed him with Temple treasury to defend him against his enemies. 

An important side note here is that Pekah, King of north Israel, is one the enemies attacking Ahaz (Jerusalem, in particular).  This means that the nation of Israel as a whole is fully engaged in civil war. 

Also of note is, during this period, the Assyrians had a well-known reputation as being the most brutal nation in warfare.  The mere notion of any contact, let alone chance of loss, would cause kings and their nations to tremble, because Assyria used the nobles to make an example.  They would decapitate the political and religious figures in the cities conquered and stack their heads in pyramid form in the center of the town square.  No one was allowed to dispose or bury the remains.  This was to remind all who would see what would happen to them as well, if they contested.

Hezekiah is 25 years old when he takes the throne of Judah.  He purges Israel of every idol he can find.  In one case, it was something of antiquity that was never intended to be idolatrous.  In fact, the object was quite the reverse when fashioned (cf. Numbers 21).  The bronze serpent that Moses made for the rebellious nation of delivered Israelites to gaze upon had been kept for nearly 800 years.  Hezekiah destroyed it because of their idolatrous worship.  However, Judah was apparently burning incense to it in worship.  Cleansing the nation, Hezekiah is described in Scripture as one who “trusted in the Lord” and who “clung to the Lord.”  There was none like him, neither before, nor after (2 Kings 18:5). 

Assyria had burned through north Israel, but their appetite was not yet satisfied.  A new Assyrian king had arisen by the name of Sennacherib and he had his sights on Jerusalem.  It would be there that he could take complete control of the land and within the Temple, would be treasures unspoken.  Sennacherib is in the process of taking all the fortified cities of Judah as he makes his way towards Jerusalem.  But Hezekiah was not one who would be considered a valiant king of war.  Nevertheless, he knew he had to take some sense of defensive action to secure the city from such a ruthless foe.  More shields and weapons were added.  Plans were assembled and fortifications were reinforced (2 Chronicles 32:5).  But something additional and substantial would be needed. 

No matter how fortified a city’s walls might be against the battering rams of an invader, there are two things that can work together to bring a city to its knees over time – food and water.  Of these two resources, water is the most valuable and it was typically brought in from the outside of the city walls (*see note on Warren’s Shaft at the end of this article).  All Sennacherib would have to do is wait them out on thirst and starvation.  Hezekiah knew this.  So he made a plan and rapidly went to work.  Time would be of the essence, because this project will literally require chiseling through solid rock.  Secondly, with a spring of fresh water outside the city walls, the enemy would have a constant supply of water for its troops (2 Chronicles 32:2-4).  To cut off the spring outside and divert it to the inside was a twofold plan.

The primary source of water for the city of Jerusalem is the Spring of Gihon (or “En-gihon” meaning “gushing” – see map).  This is the same Gihon where Zadok anointed Solomon as king of Israel (1 Kings 1:38ff).  Somehow, water would have to be routed from the spring into the city without giving an external enemy the opportunity to dam or redirect the stream.  The only option would be to channel it underground.  In 701 BC, Hezekiah employed his workers, who would cut through 1,748 ft of solid rock to connect the spring to the Pool of Siloam in the city walls.  Workers started on opposite ends of the project and met in the middle upon completion.  The tunnel has a number of curves in it that are presently unverifiable in intent.  Many believe they were directional mistakes while others think it had to do with the stone density (otherwise known as “karst,” which is a natural fault line of sorts).  Speculation regarding the engineering also suggests a possible method of sounding from the rock above to the chiselers below for direction. 

An inscription was posted in the tunnel commemorating the event of the two teams meeting in their dig.  The partial rendering reads, “The tunneling was completed… While the hewers wielded the ax, each man toward his fellow… there was heard a man’s voice calling to his fellow… the hewers hacked each toward the other, ax against ax, and the water flowed from the spring to the pool, a distance of 1,200 cubits.”  The inscription was discovered in 1880 and removed in 1890.  It is presently stored at the Imperial Museum in Istanbul.

The tunnel height starts at 5 ft high at the entrance and deepens to 16 ft at the end.  However, the Ophel, which is the highest point in Jerusalem, is 130 ft above the tunnel.  For 2,700 years, water has poured through the channel in the rock.  The gradient is 12 inches from spring to pool, causing the water to continuously flow.  Pick marks of the chiselers remain in the tunnel rocks today. 

The traditional Pool of Siloam site has recently (in terms of archaeology) been contested.  In 2004, a sewer system was being installed in the city when the excavator hit precut stones.  Archaeologists continued the dig and discovered what many believe to be the actual Pool of Siloam of Hezekiah’s time.  This location clearly predates the previous site, which dates closer to the Byzantine period.  However, the Biblical Archaeology Review (BAR) group believes this “new” discovery to be a second pool (as the Byzantine is considered third).  It is estimated that an older pool is directly located under the newest discovery.  A notable point is that over half of the most recent site remains covered in rock and stone.  This is because the remaining surface area is owned by an individual that refuses to allow any further digging.  BAR experts believe this new discovery to be the actual place where Jesus healed the blind man (Luke 9:7ff).

As for the result of the confrontation between Sennacherib and Hezekiah, there are two main sources for reference.  Scripture states that Sennacherib surrounded Jerusalem and taunted them to abandon Hezekiah and surrender.  Meanwhile in the city, Hezekiah led the people in prayer to the Lord for deliverance.  That night, an angel of the Lord went out into the Assyrian army and killed 185,000 of the soldiers.  The next morning, Scripture states that they literally “woke up dead.”  Subsequently, Sennacherib leaves and goes to his capitol home of Nineveh, located in Assyria.  Eventually, while Sennacherib is worshipping the Nisroch in its temple, two men kill him that are identified as his children. 

However, upon returning home, Sennacherib records a different slant on what has been called the “Taylor Prism,” which now resides in the British Museum.  For centuries, marauding kings would return to their homes and spectacularly document their victories, even in some occasions when they were technically defeated.   The Taylor Prism is one such example.  Sennacherib stated that he had Hezekiah “shut up like a caged bird.”  While this is technically true, it does not fully represent the net result of his resounding defeat at Jerusalem and of course, his subsequent death at the hands of his own children. 

In recent years, revisionist historians have attempted to alter the renderings and have deemed the Scriptures to be incorrect.  However, the basis on which they mount their positions is largely assumptive and subjective. 

 *Warren’s Shaft – A 45 ft tunnel with steps down to a water access point that comes from the Spring of Gihon.  The dates of when the shaft was dug are in dispute.  However, many biblical scholars believe that this is where David gained access to Jerusalem with his mighty men when he took the city.  The shaft ties into the front end of Hezekiah’s tunnel.  Some have questioned the account of the construction and purpose of the tunnel if the shaft already existed within the city walls.  However, the proximity of the shaft to the edge of the city walls did not necessarily offer the security of water supply in the event of the initial wall being breached. Two towers (1800 BC) were built at the entrance by the Canaanites to protect the water supply.  As well as the base of the shaft and tunnels connecting, ruins of the towers have been preserved and are open to view.

Biblical References

  • Numbers 21
  • 1 Kings 1:38ff
  • 2 Kings 16-17; 18-20
  • 2 Chronicles 32
  • Luke 9:7ff

This is The Mount of Olives

On Day 10 our journey will take us to the Mount of Olives (“Olivet”), which is a portion of the Central Mountain Range.  It consists of a small ridge of three summits that stretch approximately 2 miles long.  This highest peak is just shy of 3,000 ft above sea level.  The mountain is directly east of Jerusalem and adjacent to the Temple Mount.  It has obviously been known throughout the centuries for its olive trees, which are hardy to the heavy limestone laden surface.  Due to the popularity of the burial sites that are close to the Temple compound, the mountain has largely been deforested.  Most Zionistic millennial dispensations believe that Jesus will actually return to the Jerusalem Temple and reign for a thousand years.  Thus, being buried adjacent to the Temple gives them an assumed advantage of “being there” when He returns.  Many church buildings memorialize locations in the region, though the actual histories of events at the geographical points are held in question by many scholars. 

The Mount of Olives is mentioned a number of times throughout the Scriptures in varying circumstances.  David fled Jerusalem from his son, Absalom, who was leading a charge to overthrow him.  Zechariah prophetically spoke of the mountain as where Yahweh would stand and cause enemies to run while His holy ones come forth.  Debatable references also include the names, “The Mount of Offense,” “Mount of Corruption,” “Mount of Sandal,” and “Mount of Evil Counsel.”  These names were used in terms of the idolatrous places of worship, including those that King Solomon built for his foreign wives.  Another possible passage in Ezekiel speaks of where the Holy Spirit came to rest after departing from the Temple.  Jewish tradition held that the Spirit tarried there for three and one-half years awaiting Israel’s repentance.  Direct references to the mountain during the time of Christ are also present and several indirect references exist as well.  Aside from the passion week, the home of Mary and Martha and the events surrounding their home occurred somewhere in proximity to Bethany, which is on the east side of the Mount of Olives.  It is also probable that the raising of Lazarus, the cursing of the fig tree, the teaching of moving a mountain by faith, when Christ sent His disciples to go into Jerusalem, the place of Jesus’ prayer in the Garden of Gethsemane (probably on the west side of Olivet) and Judas’ betrayal of Jesus were all somewhere in proximity to the Mount of Olives.

According to the Talmud, the Jews practiced the burning of the red heifer (Numbers 19:1-10) at the Mount of Olives, opposite of the Temple East Gate.  Another interesting tradition practiced the announcement of the new moon to the brethren in Babylonia via a series of fire signals.  The Mishnah records that the chain (of signals) would be started at the Mount of Olives.  Jewish tradition also held that the dove sent from the ark by Noah, returned with an olive branch from the same mountain.  More on the side of superstition, Jews held that brethren who died on distant shores would be brought back through a series of underground caverns and be resurrected at the Mount of Olives.

When approaching Jerusalem from Galilee, most Jews would travel east and turn south, thus entering the city from the Mount of Olives.  This detour was solely to avoid touching Samaritan soil. 

Many shrines have been built on the Mount of Olives over the centuries.  While most of them declare specific events occurring at the locations, they are hardly verifiable.  Muslims have also placed value on the area and teach that the final judgment will occur in the Kidron Valley, between the Mount of Olives and their Jerusalem shrine, The Dome of The Rock.

Biblical References

  • 2 Samuel 15:30, 32
  • 1 Kings 11:7-8
  • 2 Kings 23:13
  • Ezekiel 11:23
  • Zechariah 14:4-5
  • Matthew 21:1; 24:3; 26:30
  • Mark 11:1; 13:3; 14:26
  • Luke 19:29, 37; 21:37; 22:39
  • John 8:1
  • Acts 1:12

This is Jerusalem Part 2

Today, many of the most popular sites are contested by Muslims as focal points to Islam.  The Western Wall (Wailing Wall; Hebrew – Kotel) is known to the Muslims as the Buraq Wall.  They believe it to be where Muhammad tied his steed, al-Buraq, to the wall when he was traveling through Jerusalem on his way to ascending to “paradise.”  For Christians and archaeologists, it is the expansion of the Second Temple that Herod the Great built that is known as, “The Temple Mount.”  It is considered to be the holiest place for Jews to pray who cannot get past the restrictive point to enter the Temple Mount itself.  The “Little Western Wall” is considered to be even closer to the Holy of Holies, which by definition to the Jew, is the closest to God one can be.  It is important to note that the term “Wailing Wall” is not typically used by the Jews and is considered derogatory.  It was originally applied in description of the Jews who went there and wept over the destruction of the temples that existed prior. 

With the increase of the Zionist movement in the 20thc (which are inclined to a restoration of a Jewish kingdom reigning from Jerusalem), tensions increased between Jews and Muslims.  In fear that the Jews were gaining a stronger foothold, a riot broke out at the Wall in 1929 where 133 Jews were killed and 339 were injured.  The subsequent Arab-Israeli War of 1948 left the eastern side of Jerusalem in Jordanian control.  The Jordanians banned all Jews from the Old City, which included the Wall, for 19 years.  After the Six-Day War on June 10, 1967, Israel finally regained control over the area and Jews were allowed to reenter.

The Rabbinical Tunnels are a series of underground paths that have been built along the Western wall as the Temple has been constructed, destroyed, and rebuilt over the centuries.  The tunnels provided underground access to a variety of locations, as well as having cisterns for water used in temple service, including ritual cleansing.  Aside from the history of their use, they also give access to archaeological views of the different Temple periods, such as the Solomonic (971 BC), Second Temple / Zerubbabel (began 536 BC), and Herodian (began 19 BC).  Through each of these periods, the Temple went through partial and complete phases of pillaging and destruction.  Rebuilding would take part on top of the remaining structure and foundations.  Therefore, as the tunnels descend, they pass by and through former walls and streets, just as layers in a cake.  Due to the continuing tensions between Christian/Jews and Muslims over the holy site, any continuing excavation is frowned upon.  However, the exposed tunnels offer a brilliant view of not just the pathways of rabbis from long ago and where they conducted their business in and about the Temple, but also hundreds of years of antiquity and magnificent architecture. 

Upon exiting the tunnels, we will be able to view the traditional “stone which the builders rejected.”  The history starts with one of Herod’s vast architectural projects called, “Antonia’s Fortress, ” which was located on the edge of Mount Moriah, adjacent to the Temple.  From this mountain, Herod had stone quarried to build the Temple Mount (including its colonnade and platform) and Antonia’s Fortress.  It was from this fortress that Pontius Pilate oversaw the Roman troops that were headquartered there.  Located near the northern end of the Temple, the fortress had four main towers on each corner.  The southwest corner tower is where Jesus was brought to stand before Pilate.  This tower overlooks the Temple courtyard.  Therefore, the people standing in the courtyard looked up at Pilate, Jesus and Barabbas and shouted, “Crucify Him!”  A sidewalk exists along the base of the Western Wall that ends directly under the southwestern corner of the tower at the fortress.  This is where a massive rock has been left for centuries, still bearing the scars of chisels.  It was one of the quarried stones from Mount Moriah that was to be used in Herod’s building project.  However, the builders rejected this huge stone and left it in the spot it still resides in. 

Jesus and His disciples were leaving from Jericho and bound for Jerusalem (Luke 19:1ff).  They came around through Bethany and Bethpage, approaching the Mount of Olives, when He sends them to retrieve a colt.  As He enters the city riding the colt, the throngs of people shout praises to His name by quoting from the 118th Psalm; “Blessed is the King who comes in the name of the Lord.”  This is what is commonly referred to as, “The Triumphal Entry.”  Upon entering the city, Jesus casts out the merchants from the Temple while declaring the words of Jeremiah (which ended with Jeremiah being cast into a pit – [Luke 19:46]).  In the days following, Jesus continues to teach the people in and around the Temple complex.  He is eventually confronted by the chief priests and scribes, to which Christ responds with a parable about a vineyard owner.  When He ends the parable, He quotes the very Psalm the people were singing when He made His triumphal entry into the city.  However, the line He quotes is, “The stone which the builders rejected, this became the chief corner stone.”  Since Christ continually used visuals around Him to illustrate with, it is probable that He was standing within eyeshot of the same stone which remains at the foot of the southwest corner tower at Antonia’s Fortress, where He would later be standing with Pilate, above before the crowds in the courtyard of the Temple.  Ironically, it was the Pharisees who commanded Jesus to rebuke His disciples in Luke 19:39 for praising Him as King.  Jesus responded to the Pharisees with, “I tell you, even if these become silent, the stones will cry out!”  Perhaps it is this stone that still stands, crying out its witness to all who see.

Biblical References

  •  Psalm 118:22, 26
  • Luke 19:38; 20:17

This is Jerusalem Part 1

It was a time after Abram had been called by God to come out of Ur of the Chaldeans in the scroll of Genesis (Chapter 11ff).  He had made a covenant relationship with God and journeyed to Egypt, where he let his wife Sarai be taken by a Pharaoh.  God delivers her back into the arms of Abram and their house increases greatly.  They are forced to deliver his nephew Lot from the hands of an alliance of rogue kings who had captured him in the land near Sodom.  Then, Abram meets a man in Sheveh, which is (“the King’s Valley”).  His name is Melchizedek and he is a priest of El Elyon (“God Most High”), the king of the city of Salem (“Peace”).  They break bread and drink wine in communion to the name of El Elyon.  This is about 1980 BC, around 600 years before the Exodus, almost 900 years before the time of King David (1 Samuel 16ff).

David comes into the full reign of his kingship at 30 years of age (2 Samuel 5).  7 years later, he leads his men in a charge against the Jebusites who inhabited the city called, “Jerusalem,”  which is the very same city that had been previously called “Sheveh,” of Melchizedek.  The Jebusites were Canaanite people who were essentially mountaineers that had been living in the hill country.  The city had formerly been called “Salem,” which literally means “peace.”  “Jeru” means “city.”  Therefore, Jerusalem is “City of Peace.”  This is ironic, in the sense of the history of the city, because of the strife that it has been most associated with.  This makes the 122nd Psalm applicable across centuries of time; “Pray for the peace of Jerusalem.”

Note the raw number of biblical references to the proper noun “Jerusalem” in the biblical text.  This alone should alert one to the importance placed on the city by the Word of God in relation to His people.  However, one should not be enamored beyond the point of intent.  What made Jerusalem special was that it held the temple and in the temple was the Holy of Holies.  Within the Holy of Holies was held the Ark of the Covenant and on the propitiation (mercy seat), which was the center of the lid between the cherubim figures, was where God said He would meet man once a year for Yom (“day”) Kippur (“Atonement”).  Thus, what makes Jerusalem distinct is that God met man here for an extended period of time.  Now He lives immediately within each Christian who is a “temple of the Holy Spirit” (1 Corinthians 6:19).

For the sake of brevity, only highlights will be covered in this article.  To give an idea of how extensive writings are pertaining to the city, it is considered to be the most renowned city in the ancient East.  It has in excess of 6,000 bibliographical references in literature.  It is considered the “most holy city,” hosting 3 monotheistic religions.  Wars, both subtle and direct, continue to be waged over who will control the city and particularly, the Temple Mount.  Antiquities are difficult to excavate from the city site because the land has been occupied for over 6,000 years.  To compound the archaeological issues, the city has been ravaged and rebuilt multiple times over the millennia.  Each time, masonry would be looted from the city while other materials would be brought in from neighboring ruins to replace them. 

The city has been called “Jebus,” “Shalem” and “Zion.”  However, it was first mentioned in the Egyptian Execration Texts (18th – 19thc BC) as the name “Rušalimum.”  It has also been called by the Akkadian name of “Urišalim” in the Armana letters (14thc BC).  Abdi-Hiba, an Egyptian vassal who was ruling in Jerusalem during the reign of Pharaoh Amenophis IV (Akhenaten – 1340 BC) wrote declaring his loyalty to Egypt.  Sennacherib (Assyrian – 701 BC) referred to the city as “Ursalimmu” when he surrounded King Hezekiah (2 Kings 18, 19; 2 Chronicles 32; Isaiah 36, 37).  Many scholars attribute the name of “Shalem” to the Semitic patron god, Shalem, which was mentioned in a mythological text from Ugarit.  While this may unsettle Jews and Christians alike, it sets as a consideration to be an example of something that evil has attempted to adopt and mimic as an idol, only to be regained to its original meaning as God has deemed. 

In historical comparisons to population and size of the city, the Jebusites constituted approximately 1,000 people on 12 acres.  The city of David expanded to 2,000 persons on 15 acres.  However, the building of the Temple Mount during the reign of Solomon expanded the region to 32 acres and an approximate population of 5,000 residents.  One of the largest expansions was under King Hezekiah, when the Upper City was pushing the boundaries to 125 acres with 25,000 people.  After the Babylonian captivity, during the time of Nehemiah, the city subsided to 30 acres with a population of 4,500.  In the Hasmonean era, Jerusalem initially grew to 165 acres and 35,000 people and during Herod’s reign, an estimated 40,000 people lived in a 230-acre territory.  But her growth did not stop there.  Continuing through the Roman period, Jerusalem doubled in size to 450 acres with an estimated population of 80,000 or more.  After the Muslim invasion, the numbers shrank to 55-60,000 residents.  As of 2017, the city population sits at 901,302, with the metropolitan district at 1,253,900 and the land area is 252 square miles (48 miles – city alone).

Under the Davidic reign (1011-971 BC), the establishment of Jerusalem as the central capitol was geographically strategic for the united kingdom of Israel.  Furthermore, when David brings the Ark of the Covenant from Shiloh to Jerusalem, the city now becomes more than a political location.  It became the merger of the Mosaic era to the Davidic, forming a unity of the religious and the legal rule of Israel. 

When David’s son takes the throne (971-931 BC), the kingdom will ride on the wave that David drew them together upon.  Though limited by God to build the Temple in Jerusalem, David prepared everything his son Solomon would need to construct the finest building ever seen.  King Solomon also built some of the most comprehensive structural additions to the city in the palace complex, which was composed of residences, a justice hall, a throne room and arsenal storage.  The Temple took 7 years to finish and the palace complex, an additional 13 years.  However, Solomon used forced labor among the people of Israel to accomplish this, among several other architectural endeavors.  Seeds of rebellion were sown and upon the passing of Solomon, the kingdom of Israel divided into a lingering civil war.  Solomon’s son, Rehoboam, was the rightful heir to the throne, while Jeroboam, son of Nebat contested from the north.  Thus became the divided kingdom of Judah and North Israel. 

With the kingdom split, Jerusalem lost a portion of its significance in the nation as a whole.  Nevertheless, it still drew considerable attention from enemy kingdoms and required continuous reinforcements to its fortifications.  The city withstood invasions (some, temporarily) from numerous enemies, including Assyrian, Babylonian, and Greek armies (to name a few).  Bear in mind though, the vast majority of these enemies were sent by God as judgment on Israel for her rebellion against Him. 

One the kingdoms that subsequently took over Israel was Persia, who had defeated their previous captors, Babylon in 538 BC.  Cyrus, king of Persia decreed for the walls and Temple to be rebuilt back in Jerusalem.  However, it took the Jews over 20 years to complete the reconstruction of the temple proper.  It was rededicated under King Darius I (of Persia – Ezra 6) in 515 BC. 

Led by Alexander the Great, the Persians were conquered by the Greeks and Jerusalem was taken in 332 BC.  Over the years, Jerusalem was thus changed into a Greek city-state by Antiochus IV and named “Antiochia.”  After desecrating the Temple, the Jews led a rebellion under the Maccabeans and cleansed the Temple on December 25, 165 BC.  This date is commemorated in the Jewish holiday known as “Hanukkah.”  For almost a century (142-63 BC), the Jews would be politically, religiously and economically independent during this period known as the Hasmonean reign.  These were a dynasty of high priests and kings that had descended from the line of Mattathias, who had led the revolt that liberated Jerusalem.  The Hasmoneans built a bridge over the Tyropoeon Valley that joined the Upper City (center of government) to the Temple Mount.  At the apex of this period, John Hyrcanus and his son, Alexander Jannaeus, served as successive high priest and king of Judea.  However, in 63 BC Pompey (the Great) ended the Hasmonean reign, though he kept Hyrcanus in place.  While the Jews were celebrating the Sabbath, Pompey employed his battering rams and attacked the Temple Mount, entered the Holy of Holies, destroyed the city walls and took residence in the Upper City.  As a side note, though Pompey did not immediately die upon entering the Holy of Holies, he was later defeated in another battle and fled for his life into Egypt, where he was assassinated.  From the time of Pompey’s invasion to the appointment of Herod the Great (37 BC), the Hasmoneans ruled under the jurisprudence of Rome. 

During the Herodian period (37-4 BC), Jerusalem reached its apex of development and enjoyed abundant prosperity.  Historically, the city was noted for its splendor, but it still had its socioeconomic disparities.  The poorer classes were located in the Lower City, where most of the markets were conducted.  The more affluent lived on the Upper City, which included chief religious and political figures.  Regional taxes and Herod’s construction projects were the primary sources of government income.  Due to the intensity of the sheer number of Herod’s construction projects verses the intent of brevity for this particular article, most items will not be covered here.  It is safe to say that all of Herod’s building and sites are still considered to be architectural wonders of beauty and artifice.  The city walls were fortified with 164 towers of defense.  It is disputed as to whether or not there were 2 or 3 city walls during this period.  Nevertheless, any wall would have to be substantial to support the weight of the towers.  Several other Romans contributed positive construction updates to Jerusalem.  For example, Pontius Pilate (26-36 AD), prefect of Judea, installed a rather large upgrade to the water supply with the city’s first aqueduct from Solomon’s Pool. 

The final tipping point that incited the First Jewish War (revolt) against Rome occurred because Roman prefect, Gessius Florus, stole money from the Temple treasury in 66 AD.  By 70 AD, Titus leads an attack and destroys Jerusalem and the Temple within (see “This is Masada”).  Despite the destruction, Jerusalem manages to hang on and remain the central city to the nation of Israel.  Emperor Hadrian visited the city in 129 AD, rebuilt it and renamed it Aelia Capitolina, after his middle name.  Through the Byzantine period (324-638 AD), much of the city was improved with sites dedicated to events in the life of Jesus.  The invasion of the Islamic armies in 638 AD conquered Jerusalem and held the city until the Crusader period of 1099AD.  To the Muslim, Jerusalem is considered the third most holy city, behind Mecca and Medina.  The city was recaptured from the Crusaders by Islamic invaders in 1187 AD.  Christian and Jewish tolerance fluctuated through this period until 1517, when the Ottoman Turks took control of Jerusalem and ruled it from Istanbul (formerly Constantinople, until Islamic conquest). 

Presently, both Israeli and Palestinian governments claim Jerusalem as their capitol.  While peace is largely kept by the presence of Israeli military, the tension remains clearly present for the control of the area.  The city was liberated to Israel in the war of 1948.  However, revisionist history has been and is presently being taught that Israel is a recent invader and that the region belongs to the Palestinians.  Most recently, the United States, under the leadership and campaign promise of President Donald J. Trump, declared acknowledgement of Jerusalem being the capitol of Israel and thus, relocating the US embassy back to the city.  Prior, on August 20, 1980, the United Nations passed Resolution 478, which had moved 22 of the 24 embassies in Jerusalem to Tel Aviv (see “This is Tel Aviv”).  Anti-Israel countries have denounced the move by the United States.

Biblical References

  • Genesis 14:18
  • Joshua 10:1, 3, 5, 23; 12:10; 15:8, 63; 18:28
  • Judges 1:1, 7-8, 21; 19:10
  • 1 Samuel 17:54
  • 2 Samuel 5:5-6, 13-14, 6:12, 8:7; 9:13; 10:14; 11:1, 12; 12:31; 14:23, 28; 15:8, 11, 13-14, 29, 37; 16:3, 15; 17:20; 19:19, 25, 33-34; 20:2-3, 7, 22; 24:8, 16
  • 1 Kings 2:11, 36, 38, 41; 3:1, 15; 8:1; 9:15, 19; 10:2, 26-27; 11:7, 13, 29, 32, 36, 42; 12:18, 21, 27-28; 14:21, 25; 15:2, 4, 10; 22:42
  • 2 Kings 8:17, 26; 9:28; 12:1, 17-18; 14:2, 13, 19-20; 15:2, 33; 16:2, 5; 18:2, 17, 22, 35; 19:10, 21, 31: 21:1, 4, 7, 12-13, 16, 19; 22:1, 14; 23:1-2, 4-6, 9, 13, 20, 23-24, 27, 30-31, 33, 36; 24:4, 8, 10, 14-15, 18, 20; 25:1, 8-10
  • 1 Chronicles 3:4-5; 6:10, 15, 32; 8:28, 32; 9:1, 3, 34, 38; 11:4; 13:3-4; 15:1, 3; 18:7; 19:15; 20:1, 3-4; 21:4, 15-16; 23:25; 28:1; 29:27
  • 2 Chronicles 1:4, 13-15; 2:7, 1; 3:1; 5:2; 6:6; 8:6; 9:1, 25, 27, 30; 10:18; 11:1, 5, 14, 16; 12:2, 4-5, 7, 9, 13; 13:2; 14:15; 15:10; 17:13; 19:1, 4, 8; 20:5, 15, 17-8, 20, 26-28, 31; 21:5, 11, 13, 20; 22:1-2; 23:2; 24:1, 6, 9, 18, 23; 25:1, 23, 27; 26:3, 9, 15; 27:1, 8; 28:1, 10, 24, 27; 29:1, 8; 30:1-3, 5, 11, 13-14, 21, 26; 31:4; 32:2, 9-10, 12, 18-19, 22-23, 25-26, 33; 33:1, 4, 7, 9, 13, 15, 21; 34:1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 22, 29-30, 32; 35:1, 18, 24; 36:1-5, 9-11, 14, 19, 23
  • Ezra 1:2-5, 7, 11; 2:1, 68; 3:1, 8; 4:6, 8, 12, 20, 23-24; 5:1-2, 14-17; 6:3, 5, 9, 12, 18; 7:1, 7-9, 13-17, 19, 27; 8:29-32; 9:9; 10:7, 9
  • Nehemiah 1:2-3; 2:11-13, 17, 20; 3:8-9, 12; 4:7-8; 6:7; 7:2-3, 6; 8:15; 11:1-4, 6, 20, 22; 12:1, 27-29, 43; 13:6-7, 15-16, 19-20
  • Esther 2:6
  • Psalm 51:18; 68:29; 79:1, 3; Psalm 102:21; Psalm 116:19; 122:1-3, 6; 125:2, 5; 135:21; 137:5-7; 147:1-2, 12
  • Ecclesiastes 1:1, 12, 16; 2:7, 9
  • Song of Solomon 1:1, 5; 2:7; 3:5, 10; 5:8, 16; 6:4, 8:4
  • Isaiah 1:1; 2:1, 3; 3:1, 8; 4:3-4; 5:3, 14; 7:1; 8:14; 10:10-12; 10:32; 22:10, 21; 24:23; 27:13, 14; 29:1; 20:19; 31:5, 9; 33:20; 36:2, 7, 20; 37:10, 22, 32; 40:2, 9; 41:27; 44:26, 28; 51:17; 52:1-2, 9; 62:1, 6; 64:10, 18-19; 66:10, 13, 20
  • Jeremiah 1:3, 15; 2:2; 3:17; 4:3-5, 10-11, 14, 16; 5:1; 6:1, 6, 8; 7:17, 34; 8:1, 5; 9:11; 11:2, 6, 9, 12-13; 13:9, 13, 27; 14:2, 16; 15:4-5; 17:19-21, 25-27; 18:11; 19:3, 7, 13; 22:1, 19, 14-15; 24:1, 8; 25:2, 18; 26:18; 27:3, 18, 20-21; 29:1-2, 4, 20, 25; 32:2; 32:32, 44; 33:10, 13, 16; 34:1, 6-8; 34:19; 35:11, 13, 17; 36:9, 31; 37:5, 11-12; 38:28; 39:1, 8; 40:1; 42:18; 44:2, 6, 9, 13, 17, 21; 51:35, 50; 52:1, 3-4, 12-14, 29
  • Lamentations 1:7-8, 17; 2:10, 13, 15; 4:12
  • Ezekiel 4:1, 7, 16; 5:1, 5; 8:1, 3; 9:4, 8; 11:15; 12:10, 19; 13:16; 14:21-22; 15:1, 6; 16:1-3; 17:12; 21:2, 20, 22, 19; 23:4; 24:2; 26:2; 33:21; 36:38
  • Daniel 1:1; 5:2-3; 6:10; 9:2, 7, 12, 16, 25
  • Joel 2:32; 3:1, 6, 16-17, 20
  • Amos 1:2; 2:5
  • Obadiah 1:11
  • Micah 1:1, 5; 3:10, 12; 4:2, 8
  • Zephaniah 1:4, 12; 3:1, 14, 16
  • Zechariah 1:12, 14, 16-17, 19; 2:2, 4, 12; 3:2, 7:7; 8:3-4, 8, 15, 22; 9:9-10; 12:1-3, 5-11; 13:1; 14:1-2, 4, 8, 10-12, 14, 16-17, 21
  • Malachi 2:11; 3:4
  • Matthew 2:1, 3; 3:5; 4:25; 5:35; 15:1; 16:21; 20:17-18; 21:1, 10; 23:37
  • Mark 1:5; 3:8, 22; 7:1; 10:32-33; Mark 11:1, 11, 15, 27; 15:41
  • Luke 2:22, 25, 38, 41, 43, 45; 4:9; 5:17; 6:17; 9:31, 51, 53; 10:30; 13:4, 22, 33-34; 17:11; 18:31; 19:11, 28, 41; 21:20, 24; 23:7, 28; 24:13, 18, 33, 47, 52
  • John 1:19; 2:13, 23; 4:20-21; 4:45; 5:1-2; 7:25; 10:22; 11:18, 55; 12:12
  • Acts 1:4, 8, 12, 19; 2:5, 14; 4:5, 16; 5:16, 28; 6:7; 8:1, 14, 25-27; 9:2, 13, 21, 26, 28; 10:39; 11:1-2; 11:22, 27; 12:25; 13:13, 27, 31; 15:1-2, 4; 16:4; 19:21; 20:16, 22; 21:4, 11-13, 15, 17, 31; 22:5, 17-18; 23:11; 24:11; 25:1, 3, 7, 9, 15, 20, 24; 26:4, 10, 20; 28:17
  • Romans 15:19, 25-26, 31
  • 1 Corinthians 16:3
  • Galatians 1:17-18; 2:1; 4:25-26
  • Hebrews 12:22
  • Revelation 3:12; 21:2, 10

This is Qumran

The Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) are one of the greatest biblically related finds in the history of archaeology and the study of antiquities.  981 fragments were discovered in 11 caves and constituted the oldest copies of Scripture we have to date.  Literally thousands of scroll fragments have been found in the Dead Sea area.  The DSS are famous for some being largely intact, as opposed to fragmented pieces of Scripture and other articles. 

The stories of the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls are somewhat different.  All of them tell of a 15-year-old boy named Muhammad adh-Dhib of the Bedouin tribe Taamirah, who found them around February or March of 1947.  All differ on what the boy was actually doing when he stumbled across them.  One story says he was looking for a lost sheep in the caves.  Another story states that he was moving smuggled supplies from Jordan to Bethlehem.  Yet another says he was seeking shelter from an approaching storm.   Possibly the most popular one tells of the boy and his friend throwing rocks into the nearby caves.  They noticed a peculiar sound when one of the stones hit something that sounded like pottery being shattered, similar to how one might know what breaking glass sounds like. 

When the first cave was entered, the boys discovered several jars (most of which where broken) with scrolls of leather wrapped in linen cloth.  The scrolls were extremely brittle and decomposed, but had writing that the boys did not recognize.  Adh-Dhib and his friends took the scrolls to a Muslim sheik in the Bethlehem market area.  Seeing they were not in Arabic, he passed them over to another merchant.  Somewhere along the line, the largest and oldest of the scrolls from the writings of the prophet Isaiah, was offered for £20 in Bethlehem, which was rejected because it was not believed to be very old.  Ultimately, through a chain of events, many of the scrolls ended up in the hands of the Archbishop Athanasius Yeshue-Samuel (Syrian).  Professor Sukenik of the Hebrew University at Jerusalem acquired others from the Muslim sheik at Bethlehem.  More scrolls were purchased from the Bedouins.  Finally, George Isaiah (a merchant in Jerusalem) convinced one of the Bedouins to take him to the cave were the scrolls were found.  Among other artifacts, one large jar remained that had been considered too large for removal. 

The first expert that was consulted for the scrolls was Stephan Hannah Stephan, a member of the Syrian Orthodox Church.  He was a well-known Orientalist who worked with the Department of Antiquities of Palestine.  Upon his inspection, he confidently pronounced the scrolls to be worthless.  However, his field of expertise was in Arabic history as opposed to Hebrew paleography.  Thus, his skepticism betrayed his observation.

The discovery happened at what most would view as an importune time in Israel’s history.  It would be on November 25, 1947 that the United Nations passed a resolution to partition the Palestinian area.  The relationship between Israel and the Arabic people became more hostile than before and cooperation with the scrolls diminished.  Through a series of events, the scrolls were largely acquired by the Israeli Antiquities Authority, as well as others that were subsequently discovered in additional caves.  It would not be until 1991 that the scrolls would be released and published on digital medium for global observation.  However, it was not without a great deal of stress and trial to open them to the public.

While there are some disputes over the authorship of the scrolls, the majority opinion is that they were written and stored by the Qumran sect of the Essenes.  The Essenes were composed of an ascetic group of Jews that felt the necessity to separate themselves from the “unholy” in Jerusalem.  Pliny the Elder (post 70 AD) recorded and described a group of Essenes that were living in a desert community on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, near Ein-gedi.  The reason for the scrolls being in the caves is believed to have been to hide them from the Romans during the First Jewish War (66-68 AD).  The community at Qumran was ultimately sacked and thus, the hidden scrolls remained.    

Qumran is an archaeological site consisting of 270 caves located in the West Bank.  The area is composed of a plateau with sheer cliffs and extremely difficult navigation.  Structures dating back to the 7th and 8thc BC have been excavated, extending into the Second Jewish War (132-35 AD).  There is a major cemetery 50 miles east of the community with over 1,100 tombs.  Interestingly, one major section of the graveyard contains only male bodies.  In another section, both male and female are present, as well as infant bodies.  It is observed that very few of those buried there had exceeded the age of 40.

This is Ein-Gedi

Day 8 will also include one of the top attractions for natural wonders, Ein-Gedi (meaning “spring of the kid [goat]”).  It has also been known as “En-Gedi,” “Engedi,” “Engaddi,” “Áin Jidi (Arabic),” “Hazazon-tamar,” “Hazezon Tamar,” “Hatzatzon Tamar,” and “Tell el-Jurn.”  An oasis on the edge of the Dead Sea, about 35 miles southeast of Jerusalem, Ein-Gedi is fed by a natural spring that emerges from the lower section of the cliffs there.  Its antiquity has been attested to the discovery of a temple that dates to the 4th millennium BC.  During the Herodian period (50-60 AD), it served as a military stronghold.  The Romans built a bathhouse there and the Jews built a synagogue (6thc AD).  What makes this particular place so outstanding, is the incredible amount of water produced in an otherwise terribly desolate region, which was allotted as a part of the wilderness district of Judea.

In biblical history, Hazazon-Tamar was an Amorite stronghold when Abraham rescued his nephew Lot from an alliance of 4 kings.  David took refuge in Ein-Gedi when hiding from Saul and his search parties.  At a later date, the Moabites, Ammonites and Meunites crossed the Dead Sea and encamped in En-gedi to invade Judah.  King Jehoshaphat declared a fast and prayed for the Lord’s deliverance.  God answers his prayer and gives word that the King and Judah need not worry about the encroaching enemies.  Thus, the invading armies began fighting against one another and killed each other before organizing a plan against Judah.  

The Song of Solomon mentions Engedi pertaining to the beauty of its henna blossoms.  Henna is presumed to have been the plant that the fragrant flower was used in the production of perfume.  Ovens and pottery that have been excavated at Tell el-Jurn were used for the perfume.  In terms of prophecy, many look to En-gedi as the place where fulfillment will come to the turning of the Dead Sea into a viable freshwater lake.  The water is to stream from the temple at the completion of the restoration of Israel.  Historical records speak of the palm trees, dates, groves, vineyards, balsam, resin and medicine in the area.  

During the Hellenistic and Roman periods, it is believed that En-gedi had been occupied by Edomites (Idumeans) that had converted to Judaism after being conquered by John Hyrcanus (2ndc BC).  It is also considered plausible that a Ptolemaic town was taken over and made the capitol of the toparchy under King Herod.  During the First Jewish War against Rome, Josephus recorded that the Sicarii (cf. “This is Masada”) Zealots had seized Masada and made a raid on En-gedi during the Feast of Unleavened Bread.  They slaughtered the people and plundered the city.  Pliny said that after the Romans destroyed the Temple in Jerusalem, En-gedi was left in ruins.  
During the Second Jewish War, a Jewish leader of the population in En-gedi named Simon Bar-Cochba tried to rally the people to come to the aid of those battling against Rome.  This drew Roman attention to the town and the residents there fled to the mountain caves nearby.  The Roman troops encamped above them and held them to their deaths.  

Through the Byzantine period, little was recorded about the area except the confirmation of a large village located there.  After the Muslim invasions of the 7thc AD, it was primarily used as a bedouin occupancy.  A kibbutz was built after Israel reclaimed its statehood.  

Biblical References

  • Genesis 14:7
  • Joshua 15:62
  • 1 Samuel 23:29
  • 1 Samuel 24:1
  • 2 Chronicles 20:2
  • Song of Solomon 1:14
  • Ezekiel 47:10

This is The Dead Sea

With the highest measured salinity in the world for a body of water (25-30%), the Dead Sea has earned its name for good reason.  No aquatic biological life form can technically survive in a salinity of this value.  The Sea has been referred to by various names in ancient times, including the “Salt Sea,”  “Sea of Arabah,” “Sea of the Plain,” “Eastern Sea,” “East Sea,” and “The Former Sea.”  Josephus called it “Lake Asphaltitis and the Arabic name for it is, Bahr Lût, meaning, “Sea of Lot.”
The general theories about the cause of the salt content usually divide into 2 groups: 1) the salt mountain Jebel Usdum (now called, “Har Sedom”) leaching into the Sea; and 2) the biblical phenomenon of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis 19).  Both sides roundly reject the other’s assertions.  However, this does not necessarily have to be an either/or situation.  A massive geological fissure exists from south of the Jordan River Valley to the Zambezi River in eastern Africa.  Therefore, God may have used a large earthquake (which the area is prone to) and erupted subterranean heat, sulfur, and noxious gases (i.e. hydrogen Sulfide) and blown salt all over the region.  
The current surface of the Dead Sea is 1294 ft below sea level.  It is about 50 miles long and 10 miles wide.  The Sea is divided into 2 uneven sections by a point of land referred to as “el-Lisan” (“the tongue”).  It receives water primarily from the Jordan River along with other minor tributaries.  Winter and spring rains also drain into the Sea through several wadis located there.  While salt is still mined from the Sea, the most lucrative extraction is that of potash.  
To the southwest corner lies the fortress of Masada.  A little further north is En-gedi and on the northwest corner are the infamous Qumran caves, which yielded the Dead Sea Scrolls.  Because of the rough terrain on the western side, in conjunction with the sudden and violent storms that emerge on the Sea, it became a fantastic eastern boundary in defense of Judea against her enemies.  The traditional sites for Sodom and Gomorrah are located on western side of the Sea (a 700 ft tall halite formation called “Mount Sodom”).  However, there is no extensive evidence to support their exact locations.  
The Dead Sea has made the news in last few years pertaining to an oil field discovery.  The Hatrurim Reservoir is estimated to hold 7-11 million barrels of oil.  In the last few months, reports of aquatic wildlife (both fish and plant) in the Sea have excited the prophetic community.  It is reported that fish and plants have been spotted in the Sea which is the beginning of the fulfillment of the prophecy given in Ezekiel 47:8, 9.  However, some say that there is nothing unusual about the sightings, because they are technically not in the Dead Sea proper.  Rather, they are peripheral areas of water pools that appear from the discharge of underwater springs.  Thus, the report should be taken with a ‘grain of salt’.  

Biblical References

  • Genesis 14:3
  • Numbers 34:3, 12
  • Deuteronomy 3:17, 4:49
  • Joshua 3:16; 12:3; 15:2, 5; 18:19
  • Ezekiel 47:18
  • Joel 2:20
  • Zechariah 14:8

This is Masada

The last stand of the Jews during the First War took place at 1300 ft elevation next to the Dead Sea in a fortress that was mostly surrounded with shear cliffs.  It offered a location where the only boundary was in supplies stored in precedence to a siege.  But there is a considerable history of the site leading up to this point.  

The earliest archaeological evidence of occupation at Masada was in the 4th millennium.  The next findings are dated to the First Temple (Solomon) in 10th – 7thc BC, yet there are no indications of architecture until the Hasmonean (Jewish) period.  Historically, it was Herod the Great that recognized the potential of fortifying the location for the protection of his family.  However, Helix (second in command to Cassius, a Roman senator who plotted the death of Julius Caesar) took Masada in 42 BC when Herod had gone to Syria.  Upon his return, Herod recaptured it and placed his family there when he traveled to Rome to accept a formal declaration of his reign as king.  He had been challenged by Antigonus for the region of Judea and Masada held him off until Herod returned.  They had almost yielded because they had run out of water, but a sudden rain refilled their cisterns and saved them from being overtaken.  Herod forced Antigonus to resign from his battle and subsequently, released his family from the fortress.  
Being the accomplished architect that he was, Herod began the improvements on Masada in 2 stages.  Clearly identifying what had nearly happened to his family, he carved out an additional 4 enormous cisterns to the existing 8 that were already there.  While the cisterns were not directly on the mountaintop, they were connected by a series of paths called “the snake pass (named by Josephus).”  This was one of only 2 accessible ways to ascend Masada.  The path is a cruel twist of steep ascents that can take a strong person 50 minutes to climb.  The other path is a siege ramp that was built by the Romans during the First Jewish War.  Josephus mentions a prior path existing there that provided easier access.  However, this was covered over by the siege ramp.  While both paths were used to transport water to the upper cisterns, the one on the NW corner was adeptly named the “water gate.”

In typical Herodian flamboyance, he built the Northern Palace, which had a large bathhouse, storehouses, and 3 natural terraces that were built in 90 ft stages along the northern face of the mountain (see picture).  The lowest terrace had a reception hall with a circle of colonnades.  An additional  bathhouse was located there with frescoes.  The large bathhouse included palaestra (peri-styled courtyard), with a receiving room, a tepid room, a cold room (frigidarium) equipped with a ritual immersion pool, a hot room (caldarium) and a heating system.  

In the second stage, Herod built several other rooms and a grand Western Palace with service wings, guardhouses, storerooms and other luxury items.  He then further fortified Masada with a 4,600 ft casemate wall that was almost 21.5 ft thick.  The wall encased 70 rooms and had more than 30 towers.  A synagogue was placed on the western wall facing towards Jerusalem.

The most formidable fortification of Masada was its natural location.  Josephus described it as “A rock of no slight circumference and lofty from end to end is abruptly terminated on every side by deep ravines, the precipices rising sheer from an invisible base and being inaccessible to the foot of any living creature, save in two places where the rocks permits no easy ascent.”  It is adjacent to the el-Lisan (cf. “This is The Dead Sea”) and 10 miles south of En-gedi.  The mountain has deep wadis to the west and the south, which lie between it and the cliffs of the Dead Sea.  The dimensions of the surface are 1900 ft from north to south and 650 ft from east to west.  This gives an approximate total of 20 acres that is flat.  

The First Jewish War began developing prior to 66 AD and it was not simply based on a rebellion against Rome.  Factions of Jews were frustrated with Jewish leadership and were becoming more impoverished than ever.  Differing views were rapidly forming and divisions began to spread.  To say the least, it was completely unorganized and without solidarity in cause or leadership.  These conditions were ripe for anarchy to bloom and rebels began to take front stage.  While the most vocal of the groups were those decrying the idolatrous worship that had been not only tolerated, but even incorporated into Judaistic practices.  This gave them some binding as agents of righteousness and perhaps a link to the Maccabean revolt against the Greeks (the cleansing of the temple).  

It is important to note here that the majority of history that is possessed from this period is from the writings of Josephus, who had a disdain for all Zealots and a dedication to Rome.  His views, though valuable in antiquity, can be seen as biased in many ways and must be sifted for truths.
As with all mounting internal conflicts within countries, those who are wealthy and with prestigious position are prone to seek out peaceful solutions, so as to maintain their comfort and status.  The poor and oppressed have a tendency to seek war, when the option is presented to them.  The Zealots clearly emerged as the radicals they had been historically known for amongst the Jews.  Their cause had gained traction and their numbers increased.  Two main factions developed following two different leaders.  The Sicarii (meaning “dagger carrier;” Spanish = “sicario,” meaning “assassin”) were named after their habit of carrying daggers in their cloaks to kill Romans.  They followed a leader name Menachem, a descendant of Judas the Galilean, who was considered to be one of the original zealots.  The other group was led by a priest named Eleazar, son of Ananias.  He had called for the ceasing of offering sacrifices to the Emperor of Rome and led a group priests and leaders who stood against the corruption of the high priest and other authorities among the Jews.  At one point, they take control of the temple and do not allow the other priests to enter.  

Menachem and the Sicarii joined forces with Eleazar and took control of Herod’s palace and towers and seized the Roman garrison at Masada.  In doing so, weaponry and supplies were greatly increased for the Zealots.  Later, jealousy provoked the ranks of Eleazar and they killed several of his men in the temple.  Menachem fled to Ophel, where he was captured, tortured and killed.  Eleazar saw the possible looming conflict with the Sicarii escalating, so he and some of his men fled to Masada.  
As Rome began to entrench itself against the rebellion, their campaign under Vespasian spread from Galilee to Judea.  The pressure from Rome upset the hierarchy in Jerusalem and thousands of refugees poured into the city.  The result was full-fledged anarchy.  Incorporating many of the refugees, a new Zealot party emerged and was galvanized in 67 AD under John of Gischala.  They aggressively began to forcibly take control of the city and punished anyone who resisted.  An attempt was made by the people to negotiate with the Zealots, which failed.  John believed the attempt was a trick to hand over control to the Romans.  He then called for another group of radicals to come to their aid – the Jews of Idumea.  

Upon their arrival, the Zealots proceeded to slaughter the resisting populace, including the moderate leaders.  They plundered the city and killed the high priest, Ananus, with the rest of the major leaders they could find.  The people began to desert Jerusalem.  The coalition fell apart and a new one formed between the people and the remaining Idumeans, along with another group following Simon bar Giora, to attack John and the Zealots and regain the temple.  This siege took one year to oust the Zealots from the temple.  It was 69 AD and the city was completely divided and at war with itself.  Pillaging and murder became commonplace and there was no central leadership in the city.  

Titus had been dispatched by Emperor Vespasian to quell the rebellion once and for all.  In conjunction with other generals, he closed in on Jerusalem.  The people in the city appointed Simon to lead.  Now, all of the Jews who had been at each other’s throats had to join forces against the impending army of Rome.  But it would be too little, too late.  In short, Jerusalem fell.  Even when John and Simon attempted to negotiate, Rome would have nothing of the sort.  The time for talk had long passed.  Following a mass slaughter, fire was set to the city, which entirely burned.  John was sentenced to life imprisonment and Simon was executed after a victory march in Rome.

But there was an item left undone in the rebellion.  The rebels still held three fortresses: Herodium, Machaerus, and Masada.  A new Roman legate named Lucilius Bassus easily takes the first two.  But in 73 AD, Bassus dies and is succeeded by Flavius Silva.  He sets his eyes on the last stronghold, which is Masada.  But clearly, it presents more problems than all the others combined.  Because of the shear cliffs and position of the fortress, there is only one place a siege ramp can be built and it is on the west side of the mountain.  It takes an embankment over 300 ft tall to get the battering rams up the slope.  Built with large stones and leveled, the battering ram easily breaches the outer walls, only for the Romans to find that the Jews had built an interior wall.  They set fire to the wall, but the wind curled the fire back into their faces.  At first, it seemed as if the Romans would have to retreat.  However, the winds suddenly reversed and covered the inner wall.  
Eleazar could see that all was lost.  He appealed to the people that they should die before becoming slaves.  To him, suicide was the only option.  Josephus writes that many of the people disagreed and refused to join him.  Therefore, he made a second appeal on a more philosophical front.  He told them that to die was to be set free from the bondage of the body and that to watch their families tortured, desecrated, or enslaved was worse than death.  

It is said that the men of the families in Masada each executed his own family.  Then, they chose 10 men by lot and these men killed the other men.  The last survivor was to have killed the other 9 and then have been the only one that committed suicide.  2 women and 5 children were the only survivors by hiding themselves in a cistern.  This historical narrative given by Josephus is said to be problematic on multiple levels.  It is still a matter of debate whether or not the Jews jumped to their deaths, died as Josephus describes, or were laid waste by the Roman sword.  Nevertheless, 960 Jews had survived a little over 2 years of siege before all dying together on Masada in 74 AD.

Many fragments of Scripture have been discovered at Masada, including Deuteronomy, Psalms, Ezekiel and Leviticus.  Other artifacts and writings of Jewish antiquity were also found.

This is Beth Shean

In what is considered to be one of the oldest settlements in the world, this city has offered possibly more archaeological discoveries than any other in the region.  Also known as Beth-Shan, Beit Shean, Baithsan, Bethsa, Tell el-Huşn and later named by the Greeks as Scythopolis (capitol of the Decapolis), site inhabitants date as far back as 4500 BC.  This date rivals the oldest city in archaeological history, ancient Jericho.  The Semitic name of the city can be interpreted to mean, “house of rest.”  However, many believe it was more likely identified with the meaning “temple of Shan,” due to the Sumerian worship of the serpent god Ŝahan.

The city is situated at a junction between the Jezreel and Jordan Valleys.  The tel rises approximately 213 ft and is .5 mile in circumference.  Located in Issachar (Joshua 17:11-12, 16; Judges 1:27, 28), Beth-Shean was given to Manasseh.  However, Manasseh was unable to completely drive the Canaanites out of the land because of their “chariots of iron,” and thus, they remained in the land.  To complicate matters, the Israelites then put the Canaanites to slave labor, which ironically is what they had been delivered from. 

Later, Israel demanded her first king, much to the chagrin of the Prophet Samuel.  Saul was anointed, but soon came to be a disappointment as a man and leader from God.  David is subsequently anointed by Samuel as king, but has to run for his life because of Saul’s insane jealousy.  Towards the end of Saul’s reign, Israel had been struggling to break the Philistine hold on the land of Jezreel.  After Samuel dies, Saul gathers his forces and prepares to confront the enemy (1 Samuel 28:4).  However, when he sees the Philistine army, he is terrified and turns to inquire of God.  He receives no answer from the Lord, so in his desperation, he seeks out a medium (spiritist) for consult.  While he does not ask her to specifically tell him what to do, he does ask her to bring Samuel up from the dead.  Much to the surprise of the medium, it works, and Samuel appears.  Samuel chastises him for disobeying God and tells him he will lose the battle. 

Meanwhile, as the Philistines are gearing up for battle against Saul’s army, David and his men approach them from the rear.  The surprised Philistines recognize him and want to know why he is there.  For years David had been hiding in the land of the Philistines from the hand of Saul, who sought to kill him.  Even though he had to act as if he were insane, he survived for 1 year and 4 months (1 Samuel 27:7) in the hotbed of Israel’s worst enemy and ended up collecting his elite fighting group of “mighty men.”  David leaves from the immediate land of the Philistines and goes to Gath.  He tells the king there (Achish) that he has come in peace and sets up camp.  But then he raids the sounding lands of all those who were set against Israel.  When David returns, Achish inquires where he has been raiding.  David lies and tells him he has been in the south country, which belonged to the Israelites.  Achish believes that David is purely anti-Israel now, and trusts him. 

Achish is aligned with the Philistines and thus, musters for battle against Saul.  David is unaware whom specifically the Philistines were fighting against.  But he must keep up the façade with Achish in order to keep his cover.  However, when he rides up with Achish to the battle camp, the Philistines recognize him and begin to inquire why he is there.  The Philistines do not trust David to stay true in the fight and believe it is too risky to have him along.  Achish then appeals to David to hang back because of the friction. 

David departs the battlefront and comes back to his camp in Ziklag, only to find that it has been raided by the Amalekites while he was gone.  They took everyone captive (which included David’s wives and children) and all their possessions and then burned the rest to the ground.  The people started to turn against David, but he pulled himself together and consulted the Lord for direction.  He receives word from the Lord to pursue the marauders and rescue his people.  After finding an abandoned Egyptian that had been fighting for the Amalekites, he finds the location of the enemy and lays them waste.  All of David’s people and possessions are rescued, including his wives and children. 

Meanwhile back at Mount Gilboa, the Philistines are roundly defeating the Israelites (1 Samuel 31:1).  The sons of Saul are killed and the Philistines are now in pursuit of him.  Archers manage to mortally wound him and Saul begs his armor bearer to finish him off.  The armor bearer refuses, so Saul falls on his own sword and commits suicide.  The armor bearer sees this, panics, and does likewise to himself.  Later the Philistines find the bodies of Saul and his sons.  They stripped Saul’s body of his weapons and decapitated him.  His weapons were stored in the temple of Ashtaroth and they fastened his body, along with the bodies of his sons, to walls of the city of the site we visit here, Beth-Shan (Shean). 

By the time of King Solomon’s reign, the city will be administered to under Megiddo/Ta’anach (1 Kings 4:12).  It will be listed multiple times throughout Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine history, when it will be known as Scythopolis.  When the Maccabean revolt occurs, this particular city will be spared because of its lack of resistance and support of the Jews.  Later, it became the capitol city of the Decapolis, even though the vast majority of the district was to the east of the Jordan and Scythopolis was to the west.  Remnants of synagogues from the 6th and 7thc AD have been discovered with Hebrew, Greek, and Aramaic inscriptions.  The city fell to Islamic conquest in 636 AD and was utterly destroyed.  A mosque was built on site and the city was renamed as “Besian” by the Muslims. 

As a footnote, going back into the 15th-16thc BC periods, it is important to note the presence of ancient figures identified in the archaeological stratigraphy of Beth-Shean.  Pharaoh Thutmose III and Ramses III are evidenced in artifacts, as well as hieroglyphics declaring the presence of the “Sea Peoples,” who are later identified as “Philistines.”

Biblical References

  • Joshua 17:11, 16
  • Judges 1:27
  • 1 Samuel 31:10, 12
  • 2 Samuel 21:12
  • 1 Kings 4:12
  • 1 Chronicles 7:29

This is Magdala

Continuing Day 6 travels will lead us approximately 1 mile north of Tiberias to Magdala.  Sorting out the name of this location has been of debate over the years.  The map attached will refer to it as “Magadan,” as will many scholarly articles because it is transliterated (letter for letter) as such in the Greek New Testament (Matthew 15:39).  There is a parallel passage concerning the feeding of the 4,000 in Mark 8:10 that refers to the region as Dalmanutha (meaning “many towers”).  Because both of these passages are geographically dealing with regions and districts, these biblical citations are not necessarily in disagreement.  The Jewish Talmud refers to the area as Migdal Nûnnya, meaning “Tower of Fish.”  The Greeks called the area Taricheae or Tarecheae.  Thus, Magdala-Taricheae would mean, “Tower of [Salted] Fish.”  The city is most traditionally known as being the hometown of Mary Magdalene.  However, some scholars believe the town to be on the western shore of Galilee near the plain of Gennesaret.

Towns in this region were very important to the Romans as a fishing export.  Many towns in the area were named Taricheae for their fishing industry.  Strabo (cf. article “This is Tiberias”) records knowing of the salt-fish business operated by Galilee.  In biblical references, there are no events or disciples other than Mary Magdalene related to this place.
When Nero’s position progressed in 54 AD, he conveyed Tiberias and Magdala-Taricheae to Herod Agrippa II.  Though once fortified, Vespasian captured the city in 66 AD.  It is the only location of a sea battle between the Romans and the Jews, which ended badly for the latter.  The Jews fled from Vespasian’s armies to Tiberias, where he captured 12,000 refugees and ordered their slaughter in the stadium (cf. “This is Tiberias”).  6,000 others were farmed out as slaves to build Nero’s canal at Corinth and 30,400 in number were sold.

Pilgrimages did not take place to Magdala from the 4th to the 6thc AD, which means it was not acknowledged by most people of this particular time frame as being a site directly related to Scripture.  However, before 518 AD, a person by the name of Theodosius wrote, “my Lady Mary was born (at Magdala),” which city he only knows by that name.  A small synagogue was unearthed there between 1971-73.  Excavators believe it was converted into a fishpond around 70 AD after the First Jewish Revolt.  A 21 ft masonry and mortar tower remains across the street, but is considered a water tower, as opposed to a fish tower.  More recent (and important) discoveries include the Migdal Synagogue, which was revealed in 2009.  It is considered to be possibly the oldest synagogue in Galilee, dating back to 50 BC.  It was discovered during a dig for the location of a new hotel on Migdal Beach.  In particular to artifacts discovered is the Magdala Stone, which is adorned with the relief of a seven-branched menorah.  What makes this important amongst archaeologist is that they believe the only way a person would know how to portray and sculpt the figure is to have seen it in person at the Temple in Jerusalem. 

Ruins of a 5th – 6thc AD monastery, decorated in mosaics, is present to the south.  Records from the 8th – 10thc AD indicate a church structure present and traditionally held as Mary Magdalene’s house.  However, pilgrims in 12thc AD make no mention of a church there.  It is not until the 13thc AD that records indicate Muslims using the location of the church as a stable.  

Biblical References

  • Matthew 15:39
  • Mark 8:10